Data comes in different forms, each with its own characteristics and challenges. Basically, there are three main categories of data: Structured, Semi-structured and Unstructured Data. In this tutorial, we explore the characteristics and some examples for each kind of data.

Structured Data

First, let's have a look at characteristics and examples of Structured Data.


  • Tabular data organized in a highly structured format with columns and rows
  • Each column has a predefined data type
  • Rows are uniquely identified by a primary key
  • Predefined data model with table joins using primary keys and foreign keys
  • Easy to query and analyze
  • Easy to read by humans and computers


  • Relational Databases
  • Spreadsheets like Excel

In order to get a better idea of Structured Data, let's take a look at a specific example of a Relational Database Table:

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